Moenjodaro: A World Heritage Site at Risk


Fodde, E. and Khan, M. S., 2010. Moenjodaro: A World Heritage Site at Risk. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, 1 (1), pp. 52-69.

Related documents:

PDF (Author's accepted version) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Download (1814kB) | Preview

    Official URL:

    Related URLs:


    The aim of this paper is to describe the main threats affecting Moenjodaro, an archaeological site that prospered from 2350 to 1800 BC in the fertile Indus flood plain of Sindh (Pakistan). The major hazard is today represented by soluble salts attack (mainly sodium sulphate), rising damp, heavy precipitation in the monsoon season, poor drainage, thermal stress causing walls to lean and decay structurally, visitor behaviour, site mismanagement, and the lack of vegetation. As a result of poor conservation and bad management, in the year 2000 the site was inscribed in the ICOMOS register of heritage at risk. The paper analyses past and present conservation methods, and provides recommendations for future repair and maintenance.


    Item Type Articles
    CreatorsFodde, E.and Khan, M. S.
    Related URLs
    URLURL Type
    DepartmentsFaculty of Engineering & Design > Architecture & Civil Engineering
    ID Code17580


    Actions (login required)

    View Item

    Document Downloads

    More statistics for this item...