Production of pharmaceuticals: amines from alcohols in a continuous flow fixed bed catalytic reactor
Lamb, G. W., Al Badran, F. A., Williams, J. M. J. and Kolaczkowski, S. T., 2010. Production of pharmaceuticals: amines from alcohols in a continuous flow fixed bed catalytic reactor. Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 88 (12), pp. 1533-1540.
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This paper reports the use of an immobilised ruthenium complex in a continuous flow process for the N-alkylation of morpholine with benzyl alcohol. The ruthenium-based catalyst was supported on a phosphine bound polymer. Screening experiments were first performed in a batch reactor, with a 16 vol% mixture of morpholine and benzyl alcohol (stoichiometric molar ratio of 1:1) in toluene as the solvent. Operating at 110 degrees C for 24 h, it was shown that high conversions (>99%) into the desired tertiary amine could be achieved. This reaction was then shown to be viable in a continuous flow reactor, where the catalytic polymer beads were retained in the bed. Operating at 150 degrees C and using p-xylene as a solvent, the conversion into the desired tertiary amine was shown to be as high as 98%. This approach is clearly very promising, as it provides a greener and more atom efficient route for the production of secondary and tertiary amines in the pharmaceutical industry.
|Creators||Lamb, G. W., Al Badran, F. A., Williams, J. M. J. and Kolaczkowski, S. T.|
|Uncontrolled Keywords||continuous pharmaceutical processing, production of amines, morpholine, n-alkylation of amines using alcohols, borrowing hydrogen|
|Departments||Faculty of Engineering & Design > Chemical Engineering|
Faculty of Science > Chemistry
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