Research

"Princess Alice is watching you": Children's belief in an invisible person inhibits cheating


Reference:

Piazza, J., Bering, J. M. and Ingram, G., 2011. "Princess Alice is watching you": Children's belief in an invisible person inhibits cheating. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109 (3), pp. 311-320.

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Official URL:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2011.02.003

Abstract

Two child groups (5-6 and 8-9 years of age) participated in a challenging rule-following task while they were (a) told that they were in the presence of a watchful invisible person ("Princess Alice"), (b) observed by a real adult, or (c) unsupervised. Children were covertly videotaped performing the task in the experimenter's absence. Older children had an easier time at following the rules but engaged in equal levels of purposeful cheating as the younger children. Importantly, children's expressed belief in the invisible person significantly determined their cheating latency, and this was true even after controlling for individual differences in temperament. When "skeptical" children were omitted from the analysis, the inhibitory effects of being told about Princess Alice were equivalent to having a real adult present. Furthermore, skeptical children cheated only after having first behaviorally disconfirmed the "presence" of Princess Alice. The findings suggest that children's belief in a watchful invisible person tends to deter cheating.

Details

Item Type Articles
CreatorsPiazza, J., Bering, J. M. and Ingram, G.
DOI10.1016/j.jecp.2011.02.003
Uncontrolled Keywordsmoral development, inhibitory control, invisible, rule following, cheating, supernatural beliefs
DepartmentsSchool of Management
RefereedYes
StatusPublished
ID Code23903
Additional Information23/5/11 I have emailed Dr Ingram to ask for a postprint for Opus. KE.

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