Development and validation of the goal content for exercise questionnaire


Sebire, S. J., Standage, M. and Vansteenkiste, M., 2008. Development and validation of the goal content for exercise questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30 (4), pp. 353-377.

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Self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) proposes that intrinsic, relative to extrinsic, goal content is a critical predictor of the quality of an individual’s behavior and psychological well-being. Through three studies, we developed and psychometrically tested a measure of intrinsic and extrinsic goal content in the exercise context: the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire (GCEQ). In adults, exploratory (N = 354; Study 1) and confirmatory factor analyses (N = 312; Study 2) supported a 20-item solution consisting of 5 lower order factors (i.e., social affiliation, health management, skill development, image and social recognition) that could be subsumed within a 2-factor higher order structure (i.e., intrinsic and extrinsic). Evidence for external validity, temporal stability, gender invariance, and internal consistency of the GCEQ was found. An independent sample (N = 475; Study 3) provided further support for the lower order structure of the GCEQ and some support for the higher order structure. The GCEQ was supported as a measure of exercise-based goal content, which may help understand how intrinsic and extrinsic goals can motivate exercise behavior.


Item Type Articles
CreatorsSebire, S. J., Standage, M. and Vansteenkiste, M.
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DepartmentsFaculty of Humanities & Social Sciences > Health
ID Code25926


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