Research

The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality


Reference:

Schwan, R. F. and Wheals, A. E., 2004. The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 44 (4), pp. 205-221.

Related documents:

This repository does not currently have the full-text of this item.
You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided below.

Official URL:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408690490464104

Abstract

The first stage of chocolate production consists of a natural, seven-day microbial fermentation of the pectinaceous pulp surrounding beans of the tree Theobroma cacao. There is a microbial succession of a wide range of yeasts, lactic-acid, and acetic-acid bacteria during which high temperatures of up to 50degreesC and microbial products, such as ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, kill the beans and cause production of flavor precursors. Over-fermentation leads to a rise in bacilli and filamentous fungi that can cause off-flavors. The physiological roles of the predominant micro-organisms are now reasonably well understood and the crucial importance of a well-ordered microbial succession in cocoa aroma has been established. It has been possible to use a synthetic microbial cocktail inoculum of just 5 species, including members of the 3 principal groups, to mimic the natural fermentation process and yield good quality chocolate. Reduction of the amount of pectin by physical or mechanical means can also lead to an improved fermentation in reduced time and the juice can be used as a high-value byproduct. To improve the quality of the processed beans, more research is needed on pectinase production by yeasts, better depulping, fermenter design, and the use of starter cultures.

Details

Item Type Articles
CreatorsSchwan, R. F.and Wheals, A. E.
DOI10.1080/10408690490464104
DepartmentsFaculty of Science > Biology & Biochemistry
RefereedYes
StatusPublished
ID Code3918

Export

Actions (login required)

View Item