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An investigation into axial impacts of the cervical spine using digital image correlation


Reference:

Holsgrove, T. P., Cazzola, D., Preatoni, E., Trewartha, G., Miles, A. W., Gill, H. S. and Gheduzzi, S., 2015. An investigation into axial impacts of the cervical spine using digital image correlation. The Spine Journal, 15 (8), pp. 1856-1863.

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    Official URL:

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2015.04.005

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    Abstract

    Background Context: High-energy impacts are commonly encountered during sports such as Rugby Union. Whilst catastrophic injuries resulting from such impacts are rare, the consequences can be devastating for all those involved. A greater level of understanding of cervical spine injury mechanisms is required, with the ultimate aim of minimizing such injuries. Purpose: The present study aimed to provide a greater understanding of cervical spine injury mechanisms, by subjecting porcine spinal specimens to impact conditions based on those measured in vivo. The impacts were investigated using high-speed digital image correlation (DIC), a method not previously adopted for spinal impact research. Study Design: In-vitro biomechanical study Methods: The study was funded through an institutional grant from the Rugby Football Union Injured Players Foundation. Eight porcine specimens were impacted using a custom-made rig. The cranial and caudal axial loads were measured at 1 MHz. Video data were captured with two cameras at 4 kHz, providing measurements of the 3D deformation and surface strain field of the specimens using DIC. Results: The injuries induced on the specimens were similar to those observed clinically. The mean (±SD) peak caudal load was 6.0 (±2.1) kN, which occurred 5.6 (±1.1) ms after impact. Damage observable with the video data occurred in six specimens, 5.4 (±1.1) ms after impact, and the peak surface strain at fracture initiation was 4.6 (±0.5) %. Conclusions: This study has provided an unprecedented insight into the injury mechanisms of the cervical spine during impact loading. The posture represents a key factor in injury initiation, with lordosis of the spine increasing the likelihood of injury.

    Details

    Item Type Articles
    CreatorsHolsgrove, T. P., Cazzola, D., Preatoni, E., Trewartha, G., Miles, A. W., Gill, H. S. and Gheduzzi, S.
    DOI10.1016/j.spinee.2015.04.005
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    URLURL Type
    http://www.thespinejournalonline.com/article/S1529-9430(15)00345-9/abstractPublisher
    DepartmentsFaculty of Engineering & Design > Mechanical Engineering
    Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences > Health
    Research CentresCentre for Orthopaedic Biomechanics
    Centre for Regenerative Medicine
    EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Statistical Mathematics (SAMBa)
    RefereedYes
    StatusPublished
    ID Code44229

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